Dried Mango

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Dried Mango

One of the methods of preserving fruits is by drying.  Through this method, we can now enjoy the goodness of mangoes even on seasons when they are scarce.

There are three ways of drying for food preservation:

a.   By sunlight—the material is sliced and spread on a surface exposed to sunlight.

b.   By artificial light—the materials are dried by exposure to hot air in an over or in a specially-constructed drier.

c.   By air blast—the food is dried by means of a fan powered by electricity, kerosene or alcohol.  This method requires about 24 hours of drying.


1.    Wash and clean the mangoes to remove dirt and other foreign substances.

2.   Cut into quarters or halves and remove the seeds.

3.   Dip the slices into a 2 percent salt solution to improve its flavor and color.

4.   Place on trays

5.   Dry under the sun.

6.   Turn the mangoes every two hours during the first phase of drying.  As the mangoes become drier, turn the mangoes more often say every 30 minutes, until completed dry.


Melon Rind Preserves

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Many Filipinos refer to the muskmelon simply as “melon.”  Flesh and juice from the muskmelon fruit are popular ingredients for a variety of refreshments and desserts.  The rinds are usually discarded.  But we can make something out of it.  we can use it to make melon rind preserves.


6 cups melon rinds

Lime water

2 cups sugar

1 cup water

Lemon juice


1.   Soak small pieces of melon rinds in lime water for 3 hours.

2.   Dispose of lime water after soaking and rinse rinds with fresh water several times.

3.   Boil rinds in water for 30 minutes or until tender.

4.   Prepare syrup using 2 cups sugar and 1 cup water with a little amount of lemon juice.

5.   Boil rinds in syrup for an hour.

6.   Continue cooking until rinds are transparent and the syrup is thick.  Flavoring may be added.

Source:  Agriscope

Milky Way Night-light

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Bedtime is time for quiet and rest, but that doesn’t mean that it has to be boring.  Put some fun and learning into bedtime by making customized and themed night-lights.

What you will need:


Blue construction paper

Star punchers

Star chart or star map

Glitter glue

Needles of different sizes



What you will do:

1.  Pick your favorite constellation and look for its star chart.  Have your star chart or star map photocopied.

2.  Lay the copy of your star chart on top of the blue construction paper.  Tape the ends to make sure it doesn’t move around.

3.  With your needles, punch holes onto the construction paper.  You can use bigger needles for the bigger stars.  Poke some random homes onto the construction paper to represent other stars.

4.  You can accessorize the construction paper by punching out star shapes in some areas and decorating it with glitter glue.

5.  Wrap the construction paper around the lampshade.  Cut the extra flaps of construction paper.

6.  Secure the construction paper onto the lampshade with glue or tape.

7.  When you turn the lights on, you can see the pattern reflect on your bedroom walls.


Remember that light bulbs emit heat, so make sure that the lampshade is safely spaced away from the bulb.  Do not completely cover the lamp to make sure that there is sufficient ventilation.  Also, consider using cooler, neon bulbs to further increase safety.




http://home.howstuffworks.com/science-projects-for kids-the-incredible-universe1.htm



Homemade Ink



Homemade Inck

Writing is an essential part of our everyday lives.  We write to pay our bills, list our grocery items, and leave notes for our loved ones.  Much of the communication that goes on between people are done through writing.   Because of this, the pen and ink are indispensible tools to man.

Pen and ink are available commercially.  But the ink can also be done at home.  Here’s how to do it.


Iron nails, carbon tetrachloride, white vinegar, tea leaves, glue, container


1.   Iron acetate and tannic acid can easily be prepared at home.  To make an iron compound, soak some iron nails in carbon tetrachloride.  This will remove the grease coating from the nails.

2.   Let the nails soak in white vinegar for two days.  You have now made a solution of iron acetate.

3.   To make tannic acid, boil three tablespoons of tea leaves in half a cup of water.

4.   Combine equal amounts of iron acetate and tannic acid.  Mix small amount of glue to make the solution thicker.

5.   Test your ink.  You might only see what you wrote after a day.  add a soluble dye to add color to your solution. – Bato Balani

Make Vinyl the Easy Way

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You may find the chemistry behind vinyl complicated, but it’s actually simple (see “Ode to Old Vinyl,”).  Yes, you can make your vinyl records with this easy step-by-step guide.

Step 1

You will need a source of PVC.  Many materials contain PVC, including credit cards and pipes.  If in doubt, find your parents’ old records and simply melt these down (make sure to remove the labels first; if not, it will result in an inferior quality record).

Step 2

Melt down you PVC.  This can be done over a kitchen stove.  Avoid breathing in the fumes as they are highly carcionogenic.

Step 3

Add pigment.  Black records may be obtained by added pencil lead (graphite) to the mixture; other colors can be obtained using food colorings.

Step 4

Pour your melted vinyl onto a flat plate and compress with any weights you happen to have lying around.

Step 5

Remove your disk and carve groves into it in a spinal pattern.

Step 6

Play your new record!


Rat Control

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Rats are one of the most difficult problems framers have to face the whole year round.

For traps, you can dig holes in different locations around the farm.  The holes should be 30 to 40 cms (14 to 18 inches) wide and 50 to 60 cms deep (23 to 28 inches).

Fill the bottom of each hole with water.

Rub the sides of the holes with a mixture of dry ground fish and coconut oil that provides an attractive odor around the hole.

The smell of the oil mixed with the fist attracts rats.

When rats try to eat the food, they will fall into the water at the bottom of the hole. They will be trapped in the hole until you get rid of them.  (PCARRD FARMNEWS, 1992)


Making Hollow Blocks

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Hollow Block


Cement, sand, wooden molds, measuring can, trowel and water


1.  Measure the materials using the measuring can.

2.  Mix 4 parts sand with 4 parts cement thoroughly.

3.  Form a mound and make a circular hole in the middle of the mixture.

4.  Pour about ½ of a measure of water into the hole.  Allow the water to seep into the mixture.  Mix well.  Add more water if needed.  The mixture must not be too dry or too wet.

5.  Place the mold in an upright position on a level surface.  Put the mixture in the mold until half-full.  Pack the mold.  Scrape the surface.

6.  Invert the mold carefully and pull the mold upward.

7.  Sprinkle daily with water for a curing period of 28 days.

8.  Test for compression strength by successively loading heavy objects.  Record the total mass [kilograms] of the objects when the block cracks.  The will tell you how much your hollow blocks can hold. – Bato Balani

Visual source:  cmsb 

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